Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission
This regulatory document is part of the CNSC's Human Performance Management series of regulatory documents, which also covers human performance programs and personnel certification. The full list of regulatory document series is included in the back of this document and can be found on the CNSC’s Web site at nuclearsafety.gc.ca/regulatory-documents.
REGDOC-2.2.2, Personnel Training sets out requirements and guidance for the analysis, design, development, implementation, evaluation, documentation and management of training at nuclear facilities within Canada, including the principles and elements essential to an effective training system.
As one of many management programs used within an organization’s management system, the training system supports the organization’s operational capability by providing workers with the training they require to perform their jobs effectively. In addition, a training system permits organizations to respond rapidly to strategic guidance when an assessment of need indicates that a performance or personnel issue can best be addressed by training.
Consistent with the CNSC’s regulatory philosophy and with international practice, licensees are responsible for the safe operation of their respective nuclear facilities. Consequently, licensees are responsible for training and assessing their workers to ensure that they are fully qualified to perform the duties of their position in accordance with current regulatory requirements.
This document is intended to form part of the licensing basis for a regulated facility or activity. It is intended for inclusion in licences as either part of the conditions and safety and control measures in a licence, or as part of the safety and control measures to be described in a licence application and the documents needed to support that application.
Important note: Where referenced in a licence either directly or indirectly (such as through licensee-referenced documents), this document is part of the licensing basis for a regulated facility or activity.
The licensing basis sets the boundary conditions for acceptable performance at a regulated facility or activity and establishes the basis for the CNSC’s compliance program for that regulated facility or activity.
Where this document is part of the licensing basis, the word “shall” is used to express a requirement, to be satisfied by the licensee or licence applicant. “Should” is used to express guidance or that which is advised. “May” is used to express an option or that which is advised or permissible within the limits of this regulatory document. “Can” is used to express possibility or capability.
Nothing contained in this document is to be construed as relieving any licensee from any other pertinent requirements. It is the licensee’s responsibility to identify and comply with all applicable regulations and licence conditions.
1.3 Relevant legislation
3.0 Requirements for a training system for nuclear facilities
4.0. Record management for a training system
5.0 Guidance on the systematic approach to training
5.1 Analysis phase
5.1.1 Training needs analysis
5.1.2 Job and task analysis
5.1.3 Learning objectives
5.1.4 Target audience analysis
5.2 Design phase
5.2.1 Trainee characteristics
5.2.2 Instructional program design
5.2.3 Enabling objectives
5.2.4 Learning assessment plan
5.2.5 Instructional strategies
5.2.6 On-the-job training
5.2.7 Training plan
5.3 Development phase
5.3.1 Procurement/production of instructional materials
5.3.2 Assessment tests
5.3.3 Conduct of trials (pilot courses)
5.4 Implementation phase
5.5 Evaluation phase
The purpose of training in the nuclear industry is to ensure that workers are competent and qualified to perform the duties of their position. As required by the General Nuclear Safety and Control Regulations, workers shall be trained to carry on the licensed activity.
A training system provides the basis for defining, designing, developing, implementing, evaluating, recording and managing training for workers at nuclear facilities. It provides a method for meeting the training needs of workers and ensuring that the right people receive the right training at the right time. With a training system, as defined in this regulatory document, it can be demonstrated that all required knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes have been attained, through the process of performance-based assessment and program evaluation. Without a training system, there is the risk that important elements of training will be omitted and the operating state of the facility will not be reflected in the training programs.
This regulatory document sets out the requirements of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) for licensees regarding the development and implementation of a training system. It also provides guidance on how these requirements should be met.
This regulatory document applies to all workers in nuclear facilities who are employed in safety-sensitive occupations and/or safety-sensitive positions.
In addition, this regulatory document applies to the entire lifecycle of the facility including site selection, design, construction, commissioning, operation, refurbishment and decommissioning. It can apply to individual structures, systems and components, as well as to the entire facility.
The provisions of the Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA) and regulations that are relevant to this regulatory document include:
The training system developed and implemented by each licensee shall adhere to the following three fundamental principles:
Licensees shall use a training system to systematically define, design, develop, implement, evaluate, record and manage all training, including continuing training, for all workers who are employed in safety-sensitive occupations and/or safety-sensitive positions.
The licensee shall propose to the CNSC, through their license application, all safety-sensitive occupations and/or safety-sensitive positions to which this regulatory document applies and the CNSC will review and approve these occupations and/or positions through the licensing process.
The training system shall be applied during the analysis, design, development, implementation, evaluation, documentation and management of new training or the revision of existing training. It shall be used whether the training is defined, designed, developed, implemented, evaluated, recorded and managed internally by licensees or externally through vendors or contractors.
The level of analysis, documentation and actions may vary in proportion to the relative importance to safety, safeguards and security; the magnitude of any hazard involved; the lifecycle stage of the facility; the mission of the facility; the particular characteristics of the facility; and any other relevant factors.
Licensees shall develop and manage documentation related to all phases of their training including but not limited to task lists, task-to-training matrices, training objectives, training plans, training delivery plans, lesson plans, verification tools, program evaluation data and records and decision documents regarding any changes to the training courses and training programs.
Licensees shall also maintain training records on the training and qualifications of all workers. These records shall be managed and controlled, and may be requested by CNSC staff at any time. Additionally, workers’ supervisors and managers shall have immediate, unencumbered and readily available access to the records. The training record for each worker, including temporary workers and contractors, shall include all qualifications and certifications held, the expiration dates for time-sensitive qualifications and certifications, and all requalification or recertification requirements.
Licensees may adopt the systematic approach to training (SAT) methodology to meet the requirements in section 3.0 of this document. SAT is a proven and highly successful education and training methodology, which, when implemented as outlined below, will meet the requirements of this regulatory document. It is also widely known as the instructional systems design model (ISDM).
The SAT methodology is the industry standard for training development and is the most widely practiced model in existence today. SAT is a holistic process and a proven best practice for the analysis, design, development, implementation, evaluation and management of training.
A SAT-based training system provides interdependent functions consisting of analysis, design, development, implementation and evaluation. It is this cyclic process, as depicted in Figure 1, that enables training to be systematically defined, designed, developed, implemented and evaluated in order to not only meet operational and organizational requirements, but also to react quickly to changes in those requirements.
Figure 1: Overview of a systematic approach to training
Systematic Approach text version
The analysis phase is the foundation of any training course or training program and includes inputs from operational staff, end-users, subject matter experts (SMEs) and training development experts. Its purpose is to specify the required outcome of the training in terms of essential on-the-job performance as defined by role documents, procedures or written instructions. The analysis should consider the following points:
There are various components required to facilitate a full training analysis as described in the following paragraphs.
A training needs analysis (TNA) is normally triggered by a performance gap or deficiency which has identified training as the solution. Engineering design and equipment changes, operational changes, revised procedures, and modifications to regulatory requirements are examples of changes that would generate performance gaps. A TNA systematically assesses the job performance requirements against actual existing performance (gap analysis) and identifies specific areas that require training.
To identify all performance requirements of a capability, job or duty, a job analysis should be conducted to determine all of the tasks, subtasks and task elements involved with all states of the nuclear facility, including normal operations, accident conditions and emergency situations. The end result of a job analysis is a list of tasks that should be completed to perform the job correctly. Task difficulty, importance and frequency are considered to determine which tasks need to be part of training and to determine the initial and continuing training content. Task analysis should be conducted to determine the method of task performance and associated knowledge, skills and abilities.
Learning objectives (LOs) are statements of the desired knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes that workers must be able to demonstrate after completing the training. LOs should be measurable and define exactly when, what and how well the trainee must be capable of performing on the job upon completion of the training.
A learning objective should include:
A target audience analysis determines the numbers and categories of workers to be trained and, where possible, the characteristics of the individuals who will receive the training (e.g., current job experience and prior background, experience, education and training). This information ensures that the training is designed, developed and implemented at the correct level, and assists with determining any necessary training prerequisites.
The design phase should include the selection and description of the training and an environment that will enable the trainees to achieve the LOs determined in the analysis phase. The design phase starts with the results of the analysis phase and ends with a plan for the development of the training. The design phase takes the output from the analysis phase and specifies how the information will be presented and how the knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes will be tested.
The fundamental processes of the design phase are briefly described in the following paragraphs.
As a result of the analysis phase, the target audience should have been broadly defined. Trainee characteristics should be described in terms of their entry-level knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes, and those characteristics likely to affect their responses to particular instructional activities. Information obtained in this process will guide subsequent decisions such as those regarding appropriate instructional sequences, methods and media.
The instructional program design determines in more detail the knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes required to perform a task which is defined in enabling objectives (EOs). These enabling objectives are then grouped and sequenced into the order most suitable for learning.
EOs are the principal units of learning and constitute a major step towards achieving the associated LOs. EOs are sub-components of the LOs. EOs represent manageable units of work: units that are coherent in terms of logic, learning of work, have a suitable scope and are appropriate for testing learning progress. Like the LO, the EO is composed of three essential parts:
A learning assessment plan describes the use of testing in support of the training and formal evaluation. The learning assessment plan determines how progress toward, and achievement of, the required performance is checked and verified. While an assessment should be based upon the performance defined in the LO, limiting factors, such as time, may not permit direct observation of the full range of the desired performance. The assessment plan describes how a valid and reliable sample of trainee performance will be measured and evaluated.
The instructional strategy is the combination of media, methods and environment used in the delivery of training. The advantages and disadvantages of each instructional strategy, as applied to the LOs, should be examined to ensure that the most effective solution is selected to produce graduates capable of performing tasks as indicated in the LOs.
On-the-job training (OJT) requirements should be considered when one or more of the LOs may not be suitable for traditional instruction methods. However, additional OJT requirements may arise in the design phase when there is a shortfall between the LOs and the EOs. This typically occurs when the training environment cannot simulate the operational task. If OJT is necessary, then OJT learning objectives, complete with performance statements, conditions and standards, should be produced. Subsequently, each OJT learning objective should be formally assessed using on-the-job evaluation (OJE).
The training plan describes the training and documents the decisions made during the design phase on items such as the EOs, teaching points, method of instruction for each EO, key learning events, sequence of instruction, and assessment procedures.
The development phase involves the procurement or production of effective instructional materials in accordance with the training plan.
The development phase incorporates the following processes.
The instructional materials should support the learning activities. Such items include instructor lesson plans, interactive courseware such as computer-based training (CBT) and training aids of all types including equipment, references, job aids and testing materials. The instructional materials should include the following, where necessary:
Assessment tests, which address the requirement for formal evaluation, cover both progress and final testing. In general, there are two types and both should be developed.
Knowledge or cognitive assessments: Usually written, these tests can include multiple choice, multiple response, dichotomous or binary (i.e., yes/no; true/false), matching, resequencing, and open-ended questions.
Performance or skill-based assessments: These are practical tests based on realistic scenarios of the most important and significant skills and abilities derived from the LOs and EOs.
To assess the effectiveness of the training and related materials, these materials should be reviewed by SMEs, tested with individuals who are representative of the target training audience, and approved by the appropriate managers. The training and instructional materials should be revised according to the findings of the trials.
The implementation phase is to enable the trainees to successfully perform the tasks to the standards defined in the LOs. This phase encompasses both the instructor preparation phase as well as the actual delivery of the training.
It should include:
The evaluation phase involves the assessment of the effectiveness and efficiency of the training as delivered and verification of whether the trainees have mastered the LOs and acquired the competence needed to perform the job safely.
The evaluation phase includes the following:
The following documents contain additional information that may be of interest to persons involved in training systems for nuclear facilities.
Facilities and activities within the nuclear sector in Canada are regulated by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC). In addition to the Nuclear Safety and Control Act and associated regulations, there may also be requirements to comply with other regulatory instruments such as regulatory documents or standards.
Effective April 2013, the CNSC’s catalogue of existing and planned regulatory documents has been organized under three key categories and twenty-five series, as set out below. Regulatory documents produced by the CNSC fall under one of the following series:
Note: The regulatory document series may be adjusted periodically by the CNSC. Each regulatory document series listed above may contain multiple regulatory documents. For the latest list of regulatory documents, visit the CNSC’s Web site at nuclearsafety.gc.ca/regulatorydocuments.